Post Partum Depression
August kicks off National Breastfeeding Awareness Month here in the US. Officially designated on August 6, 2011 by the United States Breastfeeding Committee (USBC), the month of educational and promotional activities is designed to raise awareness of the benefits of breastfeeding-physiologically for mamas, developmentally for babies, emotionally for both and economically for families. Here is the full proclamation. Breastfeeding has been reported to have the following benefits. In Babies
- Breast milk is widely acknowledged as the most complete form of nutrition for infants, with a range of benefits for infants’ health, growth, immunity and development. (Healthy People 2010, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia)
- Breast-fed children are more resistant to disease and infection early in life than formula-fed children. Many studies show that breastfeeding strengthens the immune system. During nursing, the mother passes antibodies to the child, which help the child resist diseases and help improve the normal immune response to certain vaccines. Breast-fed children are less likely to contract a number of diseases later in life, including juvenile diabetes, multiple sclerosis, heart disease, and cancer before the age of 15
- Breastfed babies are less likely to be obese as adults
- Breastfeeding has been shown to reduce the likelihood of ear infections, and to prevent recurrent ear infections. Ear infections are a major reason that infants take multiple courses of antibiotics.
- Researchers have observed a decrease in the probability of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) in breast-fed infants.
- Another apparent benefit from breastfeeding may be protection from allergies. Eczema, an allergic reaction, is significantly rarer in breast-fed babies. A review of 132 studies on allergy and breastfeeding concluded that breastfeeding appears to help protect children from developing allergies, and that the effect seems to be particularly strong among children whose parents have allergies.
- Breastfeeding helps a woman to lose weight after birth.
- Breastfeeding releases a hormone in the mother (oxytocin) that causes the uterus to return to its normal size more quickly.
- When a woman gives birth and proceeds to nurse her baby, she protects herself from becoming pregnant again too soon, a form of birth control found to be 98 percent effective — more effective than a diaphragm or condom. Scientists believe this process prevents more births worldwide than all forms of contraception combined. In Africa, breastfeeding prevents an estimated average of four births per woman, and in Bangladesh it prevents an estimated average of 6.5 births per woman.
- Breastfeeding appears to reduce the mother’s risk of developing osteoporosis in later years. Although mothers experience bone-mineral loss during breastfeeding, their mineral density is replenished and even increased after lactation.
- Diabetic women improve their health by breastfeeding. Not only do nursing infants have increased protection from juvenile diabetes, the amount of insulin that the mother requires postpartum goes down.
- Women who lactate for a total of two or more years reduce their chances of developing breast cancer by 24 percent.
- Women who breastfeed their children have been shown to be less likely to develop uterine, endometrial or ovarian cancer.
- The emotional health of the mother may be enhanced by the relationship she develops with her infant during breastfeeding, resulting in fewer feelings of anxiety and a stronger sense of connection with her baby. Breastfeeding has also been shown to reduce the incidence of post partum depression in mamas. (See our posts on Breastfeeding and Post Partum Depression!)
August 1-7, 2014 is also World Breastfeeding Week. Coordinated by the World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action (WABA), the theme for this year’s week of awareness is to impress upon everyone importance of increasing and sustaining the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding. Breastfeeding is one of the methods advocated in the Millennium Development Goals, developed in 1990 by the United Nations and affiliated governments to help fight poverty and promote healthy and sustainable development in a comprehensive way by 2015.
According to the WABA breastfeeding and the Millennium Develoment Goals are intricately linked, “The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are meant to be achieved by 2015 – next year! Although much progress has taken place, there is still a lot of “unfinished business”. Here are some examples: Poverty has gone down, but 1 in 8 people still go to bed hungry. Undernutrition affects about a quarter of all children globally. Overweight, the other form of malnutrition is becoming more common too. In the last 2 decades, child mortality has decreased by about 40%, but still almost 7 million children under five die each year, mainly from preventable diseases. As the overall rate of under-five mortality has declined, the proportion of neonatal deaths (during the first month of life) comprises an increasing proportion of all child deaths. Globally, maternal mortality has declined from 400 per 100,000 live births in 1990 to 210 in 2010, but fewer than half of women deliver in baby-friendly maternities. By protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding, YOU can contribute to each of the MDGs in a substantial way. Exclusive breastfeeding and adequate complementary feeding are key interventions for improving child survival, potentially saving about 20% of children under five. Let’s review how the UN’s Scientific Committee on Nutrition illustrated how breastfeeding is linked to each of the Millennium Development Goals.” So breastfeeding can go a long way to not only benefitting the health of mamas and babies individually, but help reduce poverty, malnutrition and infant and child mortality globally. If you are considering breastfeeding and want more information, the links in this post are from some of the best resources globally, especially if you want to take on an advocacy role. If you want more specific personal information on breastfeeding, I suggest you contact your local La Leche League. These folks really know breastfeeding!! They offer a plethora of information on their website, have many books on breastfeeding available for purchase and do phone and often in person consultations. You can also check with your healthcare provider and local hospital for referrals to lactation consultants who can assist with breastfeeding. Do you have more questions? Join Bedrest Coach Darline Turner for a one hour Q & A session during the Free Third Thursday Teleseminar, August 21, 2014, 1:00-2:00pm ET. She will field any and all questions relating to bedrest, pregnancy and post partum. You can join the conversation live or submit your questions up to 24 hours before via e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org. Join our interactive bed rest community on Facebook and chat with mamas globally on all things bed rest! Finally, Get your copy of the e-book From Mamas: The Essential Guide to Surviving Bedrest! This guide will help you not only survive bedrest, but THRIVE on bedrest! Order your copy now on Amazon.com Other Resources: Natural Resources Defense Council 101 Reasons to Breastfeed Your Child
Today we finish up the series presented by Kathy Morelli, LPC on hormones and mood disorders. Once again I’d like to thank Kathy for such a well written and informative series. I am also very grateful that she allowed me to share the series with Mamas on Bedrest.
The final installment of the series is Post Partum: How Women’s Brain Biology, Hormones and Mood Relate!
“After giving birth, a woman’s hormone levels drastically plummet. The literature says within one to five days after birth, estrogen levels drop to the level of a normal menstrual cycle. A woman’s body needs time to adapt to all of the physical changes. Remember that estrogen precedes serotonin, the mood stabilizer, in the brain. And a steep drop in progesterone has a depressive effect as well. There’s a big chance for dysregulation in the brain-gland feedback loop (Sichel and Driscoll, 1999).”
“Other hormones that come into play postpartum and have an effect on the HPA and mood are prolactin and oxytocin. Prolactin is produced in the pituitary gland and is the milk-producing hormone. Prolactin levels rise during pregnancy and while breastfeeding. Some studies indicate prolactin is protective of postpartum depression, but others indicate prolactin causes vigilance, appropriate to a protective mother, but this feeling can morph into anxiety and irritability. The presence of prolactin varies whether or not a woman chooses to breastfeed (Donaldson-Myers, 2012).”
“Oxytocin is another neuro-hormone with a big effect on mood and happiness. Oxytocin is synthesized in the hypothalamus and released by the pituitary gland. Oxytocin is secreted during breastfeeding. Research has shown that oxytocin induces feelings of calm and bonding (Donaldson-Myers, 2012). And the presence of oxytocin varies whether or not a woman chooses to breastfeed (Donaldson-Myers, 2012).”
Women’s hormonal levels go from such highs at the end of pregnancy and then plummet to such lows with labor and delivery it’s a wonder that not all women become depressed. Kathy shares that
“85% of women suffer from the baby blues and 20% suffer from a form of postpartum mood disorders”
so clearly these hormonal fluctuations are indeed significant. And let’s not forget that Mamas on Bedrest are at an even greater risk of perinatal mood disorders because of bed rest, so these numbers may not reflect the full scope of perinatal mood disorders.
So much more research is being done on hormones, mood disorders and the lifestages of women. When considering the mental health of post partum women, we also have to take into account their support system, their ability to take time to rest and recover from pregnancy (and bed rest!) labor and delivery, the family situation and interpersonal relationships. All these factors-along with the “pre-wiring” in a woman’s genetic make up will determine how well a woman fares emotionally after pregnancy. Mamas, Take this information, think it over and use it as a catalyst to take exquisite care of yourselves! A woman’s body is designed to do extraordinary things-not the least of which is create new life-but that feat is not without its consequences. In order to be able to successfully reproduce, mamas must take exceptional care of themselves-eat nurtritious meals, drink plenty of water, rest, regular exercise, safe secure home and financial security. Mamas, self care is not a luxury-IT IS A MUST if you want good health for yourself, your baby and your family!
I have a question for you. Could your partner be depressed? A recent study has noted that as many as 5-10% of dads become depressed following the birth of their children and remain in a depressed state sometimes until the child goes into kindergarten! Even more alarming, young dads-men who become dads in their 20’s-are at increased risk of becoming depressed and have a 68% risk of increasing depression for the first 5 years following the birth of their children.
This is really sad to hear. At a time when we would expect joy, many men are experiencing sadness/depression. The researchers who are reporting this work in the May 2014 edition of Pediatrics, Craig Garfield, MD, Associate Professor at Northwestern’s Feinberg School of Medicine and Eric Lewandowski, PhD, Clinical Professor of Child and Adolescent Psychology at NYU Langone Medical Center, say that there is so little data upon which to draw that much more research needs to be done to figure out is this more prevalent in younger men because they feel ill equipped to be fathers? Are they stressed out about providing for their families? Are they worried about finances? The reasons are likely multifactorial and the truth is that we really don’t have any of these answers. We also don’t know if these rates hold for dads in their 30’s, 40’s or beyond. Again, much more research needs to be done.
I Wrote a blog several years ago about depression in dads and in that post shared some signs and symptoms of depression in Dads. It is critical that depression in dads be identified and treated as dads’ interaction (or lack there of) with their children can have long lasting developmental effects on the child.
Having a baby is a major life changing event and while the focus of this website is on mamas, we have to be aware of the fact that the birth of a child affects everyone-mamas, dads, siblings and even pets! The addition of a new family member completely alters the family dynamic such change needs to be acknowledged and supported for all family members.
So keep this information in your memory bank. I hope that you won’t need it, but if you do, I hope that it will help you to find the support and resources that you need to help the man that you love.
If this blog helps you, please be sure to let us know in the comments section below. If you have a resource to help dads, please share it in the comments section. If you have a question that you would like to submit privately, please send it to email@example.com
Young Dads at Risk of Depressive Symptoms, Study Finds. MedlinePlus